What is METADAC?
In a world where rapid technological progress and an ageing population place ever increasing demands on medical and social care, one of our most potent weapons is the translation into societal benefit of scientific resources embodied in longitudinal cohorts studies and biobanks. Although it is easy to appeal to the simple idea of using these resources wisely, the reality is more challenging. Internationally, this is a major strategic issue for most large-scale data/sample generating biomedical and social studies as well as for their funders, who wish to see an optimal use of and return from their investments. The apparently simple administrative task of granting access to data and biosamples is often far from straightforward because of potential – or actual – conflicts of interest between study participants, data generators, data users, funders, ethico-legal experts, specialist lobby groups and policy developers. For publicly funded studies these are all legitimate stakeholders, with different opportunities to express their perspectives. Appropriately balancing these views is a complex process involving understanding of the underlying science as well as the relevant ethical, legal, social and technical issues. Effectively managing extensive and complex data and biosamples requires active and innovative governance and technical oversight of access to data and biosamples.
The METADAC (Managing Ethico-social, Technical and Administrative issues in Data ACcess) data access committee is a multi-agency multi-study data access structure which services several of the UK’s major cohort studies (1958BC, 1970BC, Millennium BC, ELSA, Understanding Society) and aims to provide a scaleable mechanism to incorporate additional cohorts in the future. The METADAC will develop, implement and maintain all administrative and technical activities plus policies needed to realise an access mechanism that is fit for purpose given the complex biomedical/social data and samples in question: its primary aim to optimise the use of the scientific resources under its governance. The METADAC is committed to a streamlined, proportionate and responsive form of governance which maintains full regard to the consents and expectations of the study participants who provided the research materials.
Complex decisions about data access are not simply ethical or technical; they go to the heart of the politics of scientific research.
Criteria for accessing data and bio-samples
The METADAC data access committee considers the more sensitive access decisions for five longitudinal studies: ELSA, Understanding Society, and the 1958, 1970 and Millennium Birth Cohorts.
New applications must be submitted at least 10 working days in advance of the METADAC meeting. Deadlines are published online at METADAC-meeting-dates. The Technical Review Team will identify the basic technical and scientific questions and highlight any problems, if possible resolving them before the METADAC meets. The METADAC committee will discuss all applications and decide whether to approve, seek amendments or further information, or reject the application. The METADAC may in some cases grant approval subject to minor amendments or special conditions.
The METADAC will assess whether applications meet the following criteria:-
- Has the application been submitted by bona fide researchers?
- Does the application violate (or potentially violate) any of the ethical permissions granted to the study or any of the consent forms signed by the participants or their guardians?
- Does the application run the risk of producing information that may allow individual study participants to be identified?
- Does the application run a significant risk of upsetting or alienating study participants or reducing their willingness to remain as active members of the study?
- Does the application address topics that fall within the acknowledged remit of the longitudinal study, as understood by participants? In addition, if the request is for a biological sample there is an additional need to assess that the use of the resource is justified, particularly for finite resource (whole blood extracted DNA, blood, saliva and urine)?
- (For finite resource requests) The quality of the science is reviewed formally (if necessary using independent external reviewers), and METADAC assesses the application against the biosample strategy guidelines for that study.
Expert governance and policy implementation forum
The METADAC also provides an expert forum for discussion of new, complex or difficult issues in data governance issues. In addition to the studies mentioned above, the TwinsUK study has an observer on the METADAC committee and can refer applications to METADAC for discussion should any issues arise that require expert discussion. The METADAC has a wider responsibility for reviewing and developing the implementation of emerging policies to reflect rapid changes in the scientific, social and ethico-legal underpinning of this important area of bioscience, as well as considering best practice in the practical and administrative aspects of Data Governance.
Download METADAC’s terms of reference (pdf, 121kb)
METADAC is funded jointly by MRC, Wellcome Trust and ESRC.